Santuario dei cetacei liguria

Alla Scoperta del Santuario dei Cetacei ( Pelagos ) 

La zona di mare chiamata Santuario dei Cetacei cioè il tratto di mare tra Sardegna, Toscana, Liguria, Principato di Monaco e Francia  per le   caratteristiche chimico-fisiche  dei fondali marini  e la circolazione delle acque è   una delle zone più ricche di vita del Mediterraneo.

Perciò questo ha fatto sì che negli anni Ottanta molti istituti di ricerca e associazioni ambientaliste abbiano chiesto a gran voce a questi  Stati a creare finalmente  la prima area protetta internazionale del Mediterraneo per la tutela dell’ambiente marino e dei cetacei in  Liguria.

Ci sono  voluti infine  quasi venti anni per creare il Santuario Pelagos,  nonostante anni di impegno e di lavoro per molte persone che hanno creduto  fortemente in  questo progetto .

Finalmente reso esecutivo con la Legge n. 391 dell’11 Ottobre 2001, ha lo scopo di “prendere…le misure appropriate…per garantire uno stato di conservazione favorevole dei mammiferi marini, proteggendoli, insieme al loro habitat, dagli impatti negativi diretti o indiretti delle attività umane”.

Il motivo per cui il Santuario dei Cetacei  è una degli ambienti pelagici più produttivi e ricchi di vita del Mediterraneo è la peculiare orografia della costa e dei fondali profondi  della Liguria  che   particolari condizioni  quali intensa evaporazione, apporto di nutrienti dal Rodano e movimenti ascensionali di acqua profonda (upwelling),   favoriscono una produzione  di fitoplancton  molto elevata rispetto altri valori medi riscontrati  nel Mediterraneo occidentale.

A livello climatico nei periodi invernali  le correnti fredde d’aria che vengono da nord ( tramontana e mistral ) sulla Liguria   e dal Rodano contribuiscono a raffreddare le masse d’acqua che sprofondando creando correnti ascensionali notevoli .  Di conseguenza queste  masse d’acqua che si trovano a profondità di 100 – 200m ,  perciò ricche di nitrati e fosfati, ritornano  verso la superficie ( alla luce ) , rendendo naturalmente   questo habitat unico per tutte le specie di cetacei che il Santuario Pelagos ospita.

Il ruolo assunto dalla Fondazione CIMA – Centro Internazionale Monitoraggio Ambientale  in Liguria e divenuto essenziale negli ultimi 10 anni perchè promuove e sostiene la formazione, la ricerca e lo sviluppo tecnologico nel campo della biodiversità.

L’osservazione della dinamica dell’ecosistema, ed  infine il monitoraggio di bio-indicatori quali i cetacei, rappresentano per la Fondazione strumenti necessari per una corretta gestione e conservazione dell’ambiente marino.    Di conseguenza lo studio dei cetacei richiede un approccio interdisciplinare: la collaborazione di fisici, oceanografi, ingegneri, ecologi e biologi permette di avere una visione quanto più globale dell’ecosistema studiato.

Nell’ambito del monitoraggio dell’ecosistema pelagico gli esperti della Fondazione CIMA partecipano alle uscite di avvistamento cetacei  con obiettivi a lungo termine quali accrescere lo stato attuale delle conoscenze sull’importanza ecologica dell’area Pelagos per i predatori di vertice della catena alimentare marina e descrivere le baseline conditions necessarie per valutare lo stato di conservazione delle specie presenti.


 

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